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Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Monday, 13 July 2015

Large Hadron Collider2 Experiment to Come Up with New Physics


The second incarnation of Large Hadron Collider (LHC2) is going to look for signs of Physics beyond the current ultimate theory in the field the Standard Model. This experiment is designed to look for things like super symmetry, new particles and ultimately the particles that constitute dark matter. Many theoretical physicists are throwing their weight behind this great work. The countries like India, USA, countries of the European Union are behind setting up of this giant reactor. The earlier run produced a large volume of data that are being processed to get some valuable clues to solve the riddles of quantum physics. For instance, the Indian contingent that processed the data from the experiment strongly believes that the data capable of revealing new Physics might have already been out.

large hadron collider

LHC Experiments

There are several experiments running parallel in the LHC chamber. According to theoretical physicists, each collision between the subatomic particles is an experiment. The subatomic particles are precisely made to collide with each other at a speed close to that of light. These high velocity collisions are expected to yield a huge volume of data. The information technologists have evolved a method called Big Data especially for this purpose. Its spinoff has been used in developing business intelligence. Basically there are four large experiments that are being held simultaneously to squeeze out the hiding phenomena in the subatomic world. They are A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE), the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb).  In the previous run, the collisions were allowed to take place at an energy level of 7 TeV. After the repair, the energy of the particle collision has been increased to 13 TeV.

subatomic world

What Experiments Look For?

Among other things, the second version of LHC is expected to look for the clues that point to the existence of Physics beyond the Standard Model propounded by the noted Scientist Sir Albert Einstein. Of the four major experiments described above, ATLAS and CMS look for the evidence of super symmetry, super-symmetric particles, dark matter and anything exotic beyond the Standard Model. On the other hand, the LHCb will be looking at the rare decays of elementary particles named musons with greater precisions. These particles contain the b quark. The data coming from the previous run were analyzed for the angular distribution of particles coming from B mesons to form K* and a set of mu leptons, which are the heavier counterpart of the most well-known particle electron.

super symmetry

Why Coloured Patterns and Shapes Appear When We Close Our Eyes?


When we close our eyes, we get to see some colourful patterns and shapes coming before us against the dark background. This is commonly known as closed-eye visualization. In scientific circles, it is better referred to as photopsias or phosphenes. This is best explained as sudden bursts of bright colours appearing in all parts of the vision field. This happens when one closes his eyes or enters a dark room. This would have kept us wondering about this. Some people even go panicking about their eyes, thinking that the eyes have gone bad. In this blog, let us see what this phenomenon is all about.

Colourful Patters Before Eyes

The closed-eye visualization happens a person goes into a dark room or closes his eyes. It is called as phosphene. This occurs in different forms. In all, the neurologists and other scientists working on this phenomenon have categorized them into 15 categories. Some of them are quite common in perception when viewed. They usually come in most common categories such as triangles, spirals, stars, amorphous blogs, spots, etc. This phenomenon is primarily due to the emission of photons by normally functional neurons during cell metabolism. Normally, the neurons in thalamus, retina and visual cortex are always active. Hence, they spontaneously fire the photons and activate the neighbouring neurons. As a result of this, the atoms in retina absorb and with a lag re-emit the photons in different wavelengths. This chain absorption and emission gets relayed through different neuron cells to the visual cortex of the brain. Based on the patterns or colours this part of the brain receives, it decides whether it has received the real images or phosphenes. This neural excitation happens even when there is no photon. The nature of phosphenes generated depends upon the place from where the photon was fired. Accordingly, it could take different shapes, colours and patterns. This spontaneous excitation of neurons can happen due to a variety of factors. They are mechanical, magnetic, metabolic and electrical stimulations. Certain drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD, etc., also could make similar stimulations.

How Brain Interprets the Visual or Electrical Signal?

Due to the ongoing cell metabolism, the neurons fire photons that are captured by neighbouring neurons only to re-emit them in different frequencies or wavelengths. This chain of events gets relayed to the visual cortex of the brain in no time. The visual cortex tries to re-construct the image from whatever input it gets from the neurons that feed it. If the image re-constructed does not correspond to a real-time object, the visual cortex labels it as a phosphene. The frequency and colour pattern of emission depends upon the area from where it was fired as previously said. This can be used to state where there is hyperactivity of the neurons and the reason for such behaviour.